Peer-reviewed Publications

Data Assimilation



Zhou, X., Y. Zhu, D. Hou, and D. Kleist, 2016: Comparisons of the initialization schemes between the ensemble transform and the ensemble Kalman filter for the NCEP global ensemble forecast system. Wea. Forecasting, accepted.


Zhu, Y., E. Liu, R. Mahajan, C. Thomas, D. Groff, P. Van Delst, A. Collard, D. T. Kleist, R. Treadon, and J. C. Derber, 2016: All-sky microwave radiance assimilation in the NCEP's GSI analysis system.  Mon. Wea. Rev., in press (doi:


Parson, D. B., P. Bougeault, G. Brunet, J. Caughey, M. Charron, H. C. Davies, A. Diongue Niang, M. Diop-Kane, D. T. Kleist, V. Ducrocq, T. M. Hamill, P. A. Harr, R. H. Langland, J. Lazo, S. J. Majumdar, B. N. Mills, M. Montcrieff, T. Nakazawa, D. J. Parker, D. Parrish, F. Rabier, J.-L. Redelsperger, D. Rogers, R. W. Saunders, R. Swinbank, C. Thorncroft, D. Waliser, H. Wernli, J. Whitaker, X. Wang, M. Yamaguchi, and Z. Toth, 2016: The Legacies of the THORPEX Program. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., in prep.


Kleist, D. T., and K. Ide, 2015: An OSSE-based evaluation of hybrid variational-ensemble data assimilation for the NCEP GFS, Part I: System description and 3D-hybrid results. Mon. Wea. Rev., 143, 433-451 (doi:


Kleist, D. T., and K. Ide, 2015: An OSSE-based evaluation of hybrid variational-ensemble data assimilation for the NCEP GFS, Part II: 4D EnVar and hybrid variants. Mon. Wea. Rev., 143, 452-470 (doi:


Brennan, M. J., D. T. Kleist, K. Howard, and S. J. Majumdar, 2015: The impact of supplemental dropwindsonde data on the structure and intensity of Tropical Storm Karen (2013) in the NCEP Global Forecast System. Wea. Forecasting, 30, 683-691. (doi: .


Wang, X., D. Parrish, D. Kleist, and J. S. Whitaker, 2013: GSI 3DVar-based ensemble-variational hybrid data assimilation for NCEP Global Forecast System: single resolution experiments. Mon. Wea. Rev., 141, 4098–4117 (doi:


Kleist, D. T., 2011: Assimilation of tropical cyclone advisory minimum sea level pressure in the NCEP global data assimilation system. Wea. Forecasting, 26, 1085-1091(doi:


Wang, H., T. J. Fuller-Rowell, R. A. Akmaev, M. Hu, D. T. Kleist, and M. D. Iredell, 2011: First simulations with a whole atmosphere data assimilation and forecast system: the January 2009 major sudden stratospheric warming. J. Geophys. Res-Space Physics., 116, A12321 (doi:


Hamill, T. M., J. S. Whitaker, D. T. Kleist, P. Pegion, M. Fiorino, and S. G. Benjamin, 2011: Predictions of 2010’s tropical cyclones using the GFS and ensemble-based data assimilation methods. Mon. Wea. Rev., 139, 3243-3247 (doi:


Saha, S., and Coauthors, 2010: The NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 91, 1015-1057



Zagar, N., J. Tribbia, J. L. Anderson, K. Raeder, and D. T. Kleist, 2010: Diagnosis of systematic analysis increments by using normal modes. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 136, 62-76 (doi:


Kleist, D.T., D.F. Parrish, J.C. Derber, R. Treadon, W.-S. Wu, and S. Lord, 2009: Introduction of the GSI into the operational NCEP Global Data Assimilation System. Wea. Forecasting., 24, 1691–1705 (doi:


Kleist, D.T., D.F. Parrish, J.C. Derber, R. Treadon, R.M. Errico, and  R. Yang, 2009: Improving incremental balance in the GSI 3DVAR analysis system. Mon. Wea. Rev., 137, 1046-1060 (doi:



Predictability/Adjoint Sensitivity


Kleist, D.T., and M.C. Morgan, 2005: Application of adjoint-derived forecast sensitivities to the 24-25 January 2000 U.S. east coast snowstorm. Mon. Wea. Rev., 133, 3148-3175 (doi:


Kleist, D.T., and M.C. Morgan, 2005: Interpretation of the structure and evolution of adjoint-derived forecast sensitivity gradients. Mon. Wea. Rev., 133, 467-485 (doi: